Women in Indonesia Wikipedia

Dowry is rarely practiced in Indonesian culture, yet bride price is practiced by certain ethnic groups. The price paid is based on the education, career, beauty, social and economic strata, or noble background of the bride.

There is limited information regarding soil science education, and the role of women in Indonesia. This study aimed to provide an overview of the issue of gender equality in Indonesian soil science. We surveyed the number of women soil science students, lecturers, and researchers from 2016 to https://micromedicadev.wpengine.com/dating/sex-lies-and-video-cams-andrew-tate-turned-women-into-slaves-prosecutors-say/ 2020. Twenty-seven soil science undergraduate programs were identified across government-owned universities in Indonesia. The number of students in soil science is steadily increasing in the last five years, each year with about 1500 new students enroll in soil science. The number of female students also increased with an average proportion of 55% in 2020. However, the number of women academics was only 30%, representing a disproportion of gender equity.

In 2012, 18% of national parliament representatives were held by women. Tri Rismaharini is one example of the rising numbers of female leaders throughout Indonesia. The ratio of girls to boys in primary and secondary schools is also even as of 2013. More scholarships awarded by the Indonesian government were given to women, and resulted in higher achievement in their later life. In most major cities like Jakarta and Surabaya, educated female workforce tend to postpone marriage, and girls who finish secondary school are six times less likely to marry early. Their prior work has already had an impact, according to organizers. Since 2017, when KUPI issued fatwas on sexual violence, child marriage, and environmental degradation, the Indonesian government has legislated changes relating to two of the fatwas issued.

You might enjoy the odd religious holiday, but they were prescribed, as was the weekend, when that came along. Broadly speaking, your days of rest were the same as everyone else’s.

  • The court sentenced the defendant to 10 months imprisonment and a fine of Rp.
  • I have to be brave.” Ani, an 18-year-old female high school student in Yogyakarta.
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  • Women are a highly vulnerable population for HIV-infection, influenced by biological, cultural, social and economic factors.
  • In 2019, the country raised the age that women can marry from 16 to 19.

Separated by nearly 70 miles of western South Pacific Ocean, these two women have never met—yet they live parallel lives. The 2012 IDHS obtained ethical permission from the National Institute of Health Research and Development, Indonesian Ministry of Health.

The challenge for effective gender mainstreaming, however, is the political will to translate the approach into well-resourced programmes from one province to another. In January 2021, at SMKN2 state high school in Padang, after a video on jilbab went viral and a school inspector visited, the school stopped pressuring Christian students to wear the mandatory jilbab and long-sleeve shirts. The video, uploaded on Facebook, was made by the father of a girl who attended the school. Human Rights Watch interviewed more than 100 women who have experienced abuse and often long-term consequences for refusing to wear the jilbab. Human Rights Watch collected the text of the regulations and included them as an annex to a 2021 report. South Sulawesi province authorities adopted the latest decree in August 2021. Nonetheless, the economy now seems to be improving (high GDP growth in 2012 as high as 6.2%) and some programs had been done by the government to help promote the health and welfare of women and children.

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Sexual crime, harassment, and trafficking

However, traditionally, those recognized as ulama have primarily tended to be men. This conference will gather academics, teachers, researchers, and graduate students who are involved in or have conducted research about the empowerment of women in contemporary Indonesia. It aims to highlight https://onlinetrainermentorship.com/panamanian-women-panamanian-women-women-latina-women/ research and work that analyze the various socioeconomic, religious, or legislative changes that have advanced or hindered the empowerment of women in Indonesia in recent decades. The conference will not only discuss the progress that have been made, but also the challenges that the country continues to face. This is not simply a matter of filling seats in the cabinet with women – such as the wives and sisters of male politicians – because it’s required by law. But, rather, there are some incredible female political figures who are there because they are strong, smart and capable. This means there is the intention to ensure infrastructure, health and education outcomes include results that address specific gender equality gaps.

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Of these, the majority were married (76.5%); more than half had completed secondary education (52%) and were lower-mid socioeconomic status (20.1%). More than half had access to a newspaper and or radio at least once weekly, but almost all had access to televisions (95.2%). Nevertheless, violence against women is high in Indonesia and can happen in all places – rich or poor, east or west – and has different https://mindsetmax.com/italy-richest-women-2022/ manifestations from street harassment and trafficking to domestic violence and workplace harassment. It’s therefore difficult to generalize that Indonesia is an unsafe place for women because it’s an extremely diverse country. There is religious diversity where the eastern-most province of Aceh https://thegirlcanwrite.net/indonesian-women/ is the only province in the country where Sharia law is enforced, whereas in the western-most province of West Papua, the dominant religion is Christianity and the ways of life are completely different. They showed Human Rights Watch more than 60 pages of bullying and threats they downloaded from Facebook. Both women and Human Rights Watch reported the threats to Facebook, but no known action was taken for months and Facebook has not revealed the outcome of its investigation.

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A local saying that more children equated to more fortune and it was widely believed that the use of contraceptives contravened religious and moral values. This contributed to a very high fertility rate, recognising that it was a major factor in creating widespread poverty. Child marriage is also common.It is among the triggering factors of diseases in women such as cervical cancer, and is sustained by traditional norms. The proportion of seats held by women in the national parliament in Indonesia increased by 0.7 percentage points since the previous year. With 21.04 percent, the proportion thereby reached its highest value in the observed period. The defendant paid his friend to bring the victim, a 14-year-old child, to defendant’s café under the pretext of attending a birthday party. After defendant’s friend abandoned the victim at the café, the defendant told the victim to work as a server but also forced her to have sex with the male clients and kept all payments received for the victim’s services.

In terms of today’s movers and shakers, they are walking in the footsteps of these historical figures. Before that, Suharto, ruled the country for almost 32 years and increased the inequality gap between men and women. The country has also been undergoing a process of democratization which has involved slowly decentralizing its power. This means that greater authority has been distributed to the 34 provincial governments outside of the capital of Jakarta. The hijab issue and women’s dress has prompted a global debate in Muslim-majority countries, such as Indonesia, as well as in countries where Muslims constitute a significant minority population. In 2000, my father and some of his followers were summoned by dozens of Islamic religious leaders to a meeting at the Ayong Linggarjati Hotel. The invitation was to have a dialogue, but there were a lot of accusations that my father had committed heresy.

Article 297 prohibits trafficking in woman and boys, which carries a maximum sentence of six years imprisonment. Article 299 imposes a four-year maximum sentence for abortion and provides for a one-third increase in sentencing for professionals (e.g., doctor, midwife) who perform abortions. These findings highlight inequality in infrastructure development to help people easily able to access information. Women with more formal education also had a higher HIV knowledge level. However, the majority of Indonesian women have completed less than a secondary level of education.